Water installation in the houses
In this section, we are going to deal with the cycle the water since it is taken from the river until it is given back again to the river (already tried).
In the image we can observe how it is taken in a high point of the margin of the river, goes to the plant of treatments where it is cleaned and one is and this one to the city by means of a network of concrete pipes.
In one first stage, the plant realises a physical filtrate treatment where it eliminates small substances of the water (grain of vegetal sand, residues, small insects, etc), to happen to a chemical treatment in which chlorine is contributed essentially to eliminate possible bacteria that the water contains. All the process is controlled by technicians who analyze the water, as much to the entrance as when coming out of the plant.
As the water does not arrive if you do not push it has installed throughout the circuit some houses where a group of hydraulic pumps is in charge of which it arrives at the place where it is going away to store (deposits).
Once in the city, a network of pipes supplies the homes. In order to have access to the water, the attack is realised that is not another thing that enlistment from the formation communications net to the network of the house.
The details of the attack are:
If we are providing water to a building, he is frequent that we find with low pressures in the last plants. In that case, a water pump is placed that elevates the same until a deposit lodged in but the high thing of the building. From there and, passing through some individual accountants next to a stop cock, the water to each house is provided.
In the case of houses, after the attack, one goes to the accountant. In the today houses, the box of the accountant contains the same accountant, the stop cock and some case a reducing valve of pressure.
The measurement of the accountant comes given by m3 (cubic meters of water).
Basic water installation
In the following image we have the circuit of cold water pipes (blue) and warms up. They are open circuits because the water does not return to circulate around the pipe (since it goes to the water-drainage).
The circuit of hot water begins in the heater (of electrical gas or) and supplies hot water to washbasin, sink of kitchen and bidet. The cold circuit of water supplies water to all the toilets and electric home appliances that need it (even to the refrigerator if this it has water taking to make cubes)
In the image we have 1 is the 2, stop cock and 4 are keys of cuts for toilets and electric home appliances, 3 are 5 faucet the copper siphon and the 6 pipes.
At present usually they are used siphons as the one of the right image, that creates a water cavity in its interior doing the same function that the previous one, but with the advantage of a simpler and fast installation and an effective cleaning but due to the system of spiral of the part inferior.
It is necessary to add that for the union of PVC tubes special glues for this plastic type exist. Other are not due to use that contain dissolvents
Sif³nico boat of the quarter of Bathroom
Another outstanding element in all restoration of water-drainage is the sif³nico boat, that it has
the form of the image shown the right. One settles in the ground of the bathroom and the shower (or bathtub) is connected, the washbasin and the bidet. The flush toilets are not connected, that have direct connection to bajante of waste waters. It has an accessible metallic cover for his manipulation (internal cleaning). It is made normally of PVC and it has in his interior a cover of pressure and threaded to avoid that the water leaves by the metallic cover.
We show a drawing of how this essential component in all installation works, that uses the same principle of the siphon before described. When the water arrives at the level of the exit pipe, the water leaves the sif³nico boat and arrives at bajante of general water-drainage.
One of the most typical problems in this component is the obstruction by accumulation of residues or hairs.
This situation causes that the water does not leave by the exit of sif³nico boat and is accumulated in the toilet that we are using.
In order to solve the problem, the screw of the cover takes off, is unscrewed the plastic cover to accede to ace exits of water, it removes to the water and rest until being all the clean zone. This simple task of maintenance us can save much money.
How we can save water at home?
Some advice to avoid the water waste and to pay less in the invoice are
- When you brush teeth, you do not leave the open faucet.
- He connects perlizadores in the faucets. thanks to them you can save until a 50% of water. The spray uses the Venturi effect by which, in a pipe, when lowering the section, increases to the speed of the low fluid and the pressure of the same. As a result of it, if we have another fluid where the pipe is narrowed, this one it is sucked and it enters the pipe. In this case, which enters the water by the close zone is air reason why we secured the same effect of volume, although half it is air.
- They exist perlizadores for the shower, although those are very few houses that make it with somewhat high prices
- Perhaps if the toilet is new 3l/6l does not have the unloading button (double unloading). In this case, it opens the cover of the cistern and puts a pair of plastic bottles. That will cause that the cistern fills before and water is saved.
- You do not have much water pressure. The stop cock closes a little. That causes that to the April the faucet, the volume is something smaller without noticing much the difference in the comfort but in the liters of water that you save yourself to the month.
- The washing machine and the dishwasher always to full load and better with short programs, if it is possible. It is not good idea to wash plates by hand because you are going to consume on a 40% more of water.
- The shower saves water with respect to the bathroom. It closes the faucet while you soap yourself. The water saving can be greater to 120 liters.
- We have a water flight in the house and we do not know where. We verify the accountant and turns the small hand with all the open faucets. How you have to come to find out where is located the problem?
- It has touched the lottery to us and we give a return to the world. When returning we have a very disagreeable scent in the house coming from the quarter of beam. What has been able to happen?
- How moderate the water is pressure?
- When opening the dishwasher we have a disagreeable scent. It draws how it must put the water-drainage rubber to avoid the scent
- The plant that treats the water for consumption in the city is in the low or high part of the channel. Because?
- It draws how it is a water-drainage in a quarter of bathroom. It locates in your bathroom where is the sif³nico boat and explains how it works.
- The clean water pipes are of __________and those of water-drainage of _____________
- It explains what is the perlizador
- Methods to save water
- Why added is chlorine to the water?
In order to know but
Of level form and trying not to use formulas, a drop of water (1) moves at a speed 1 in great a A1 section but that the A2. When it arrives at section 2, the speed increases because if is not wanted to make tail, the drops must go faster to be able to cross that zone and, therefore, speed 2 is greater, which brings about an effect of absorption in the water column that there is above, (the P2 pressure is smaller). h represents the pressure differential in the two columns. If by the right tube, we put air, this one could be incorporated to the water leaving by the section of the right, water by far built-in air.