We will see the concepts that we must consider to make the tasks. **It is necessary to consider that the following definitions are adapted so that the concepts are understood well, although defer a little the officials€.**

1 All body has an electrical resistance, that is defined as the opposition that presents the body to that they pass electrons. That resistance is moderate in Ohms (Î©)

2 the cables allow that the electrons move by them. If they pass many per second, one says that through the cable it passes a great intensity of electrons. Intensity as the amount of electrons is defined that happen through the cable in the time unit.

It is necessary to consider that the electrons that enter by a terminal a resistance are equal to that they leave on the other terminal. **The electrons do not disappear, that yes, the energy with which leaves yes is smaller.**

3 When an electron enters a resistance (for example, a light bulb), loses energy that is turned into light. Thinking about it, we can define the tension or fall of potential in the tips of a resistance as€ the energy loss that takes place in the electron€.

The three previous parameters are related to the law of Ohm, that says:

In a resistance, the Intensity that crosses it is equal to the quotient between the tension applied in its tips and the resistivo value of the same, or what is the same:

From all the previous one we can draw the conclusions that in a circuit series, the intensity is the same in each point of the circuit and, to each step that the electron gives, is losing energy, that is to say, when it happens through a resistance, his tension is falling (as a result of the energy loss)

The practices that we are going to do must pick up the following points

**- Material of components to use **

**€“****Scheme**

__ - Operation:__

**€“****Calculations**

**€“****Simulation**

**- Comparative table of calculations with the simulation**

1 Montar in Proteus a circuit with three resistance series of values 2, 4 and 10 Ohms

2 Practical. To realise in Proteus the simulation of a circuit of three resistance in parallel of values 1K2, 4K2 and 5k2

3 Now we will mount a mixed circuit, with 4 resistance of 1 kÎ©, 2 kÎ© in parallel 2 of 4 kÎ©. The feeding will be a battery of 100 volts. We show a circuit for but clarity.

4 Montar on one protoboard the following mixed circuit

First we must take measures from each resistance that we are going to use. We detail the sections of this point:- To measure house resistance given for the practice.
- To calculate, according to the system of value, color code of each component
- Photo of polmetro when doing the measurement
- Assembly of the resistance in protoboard
- To realise the calculations of the currents and tension in each component. To make a table (several columns and three rows) where these values take shelter. To complete the first row, corresponding to theoretical calculation.
- To mount in proteus the circuit and to take the measures from tension and currents. To take the values to the table (2 row, corresponding to simulation)
- To mount in the plate and to return to take the previous measurements. To complete the third row (real Data)
- As technician in teleco, to explain because they actually defer the obtained results from the theoreticians

5

In the circuit that is next, to make the points- To measure with polmetro the 5 resistance

2 Photos to polimetro

- Materials to use
- Schemes
- Operation
- Simulation
- Calculations

6.1. Total resistance

6.2. Total intensity

6.3. Voltage of R_{1,4} R_{23}, R_{and} R_{5}

6.4. To verify that: BT = 12V

6.5. To verify that IT = I_{1} + I_{2}

- Images assembly plate board
- Comparison of the calculations with the simulation and plate board.
- As technician in telecommunications.

Why are the results of the comparative one different?

10. Calculations and Table of power of the loudspeakers

6 **Measures of 3 random Condensers whose values do not defer too many some from others. **

6.1 **Medir with polmetro the condensers.** **To write down and to make photo**

6.2 **Calcular the equivalent capacity of the following configuration of condensers in series.**

6.3 Medir **with polmetro the condensers in the plate board in series.**

6.4 Calcular **the equivalent capacity of the following configuration of condensers in parallel.**

**6.5 Medir with polimetro the condensers in the plate board in parallel.**

7.1. **It practices to 7.Saber how to unload and it loads of a condenser.**

The data that we are going to use are the following:

R = 10K„¦

C = 80µF

Battery = 20V

7.1 Calcular how long of load and unloading of the condenser.

7.2 Averiguar the following values of the table in such a way that the time of load and unloading is of 8 second and 10 seconds.

Resistance | Condenser | |

Time 8 s. | 100K | |

Time 10 s | 20K |

7.3 Simular sections 7,1. and 7,2. in Proteus.

7,4 Steps to follow in Proteus.

7.5 Visualizar graphically the process of load and unloading. For that we needed equipment in called electronics oscilloscope, for that it is necessary search in Proteus the oscilloscope and we will place it in the circuit.

7.6 Realizar in the plate board sections 7,1 and 7.2

**8 Practica 8.**

Material that we are going to use:

R1 = 100 K„¦ C1 = 1000 µF Polmetro

R2 = 10 K„¦ C2 = 100 µF Power supply

R3 = 1K„¦ Lamp of 12V Board plate

R4 = 470„¦ Chronometer Proteus.

- Procedure. To simulate and assembly.

1.1. To simulate in Proteus.

1.1.1. To mount the circuit and to simulate.

1.1.2. To pass the commutator to position 1 and to observe how the tension in the condenser evolves.

- Tension in the condenser at the initial moment
- Tension in the condenser at the final moment
- When the condenser totally is loaded Which is the difference of potential between the terminals of the condenser and if it agrees with the power supply?
- To explain because of the previous section in a table.

1,2 Assembly in the plate board.

1.2.1. To mount in the circuit in the plate board.

1.2.2. To pass the commutator to position 1 and to observe how the tension in the condenser evolves.

- Tension in the condenser at the initial moment
- Tension in the condenser at the final moment
- When the condenser totally is loaded Which is the difference of potential between the terminals of the condenser and if it agrees with the power supply?
- To explain because of the previous section in a table.

- Procedure of unloading.

2.1 Simular commutator in position 1 and later to pass it to position 2.

2.1.1 Observar how the unloading process evolves.

- Tension in the condenser at the initial moment
- Tension in the condenser at the final moment

2.2 Montar in the plate board.

2.2.1 Once loaded, to pass the commutator to position 2 to unload it observes it what it is happening with the voltmeter

- Tension in the condenser at the initial moment
- Tension in the condenser at the final moment

- To fill up the following tables.

3,1 Simulation

3.1.1. Load

Time | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 20 | 30 | 40 | 50 | 60 |

Tension |

3.1.2 Unloading

Time | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 20 | 30 | 40 | 50 | 60 |

Tension |

3.2. Reality

3.2.1 Load

Time | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 20 | 30 | 40 | 50 | 60 |

Tension |

3.2.2. Unloading

Time | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 20 | 30 | 40 | 50 | 60 |

Tension |

9 Circuit RLC

We mount circuit RLC of the figure with the values that are specified. The practice must as objective visualize the tension in the condenser and the coil for different frequencies. For it we must put two soundings (red and blue) taking the datum point (mass) in center. To measure Vc and Vl for the frequencies

- 100 Hertz
- 200 Hertz
- 400 Hertz
- 800 Hertz
- 1500 Hertz
- 4000 Hertz

10 Calculation of phase angle

In him circuit of the figure, the tension of the alternating source is 10 volts and f = 100 Hertz. To calculatea) Xl

b) Impedance of circuit Z

c) To verify simulating in the circuit, that the phase angle between the tension in the resistance and the 90 coil is of